Protein (protein) — an organic compound consisting of amino acids that are connected in a chain by a peptide bond. Proteins make up muscles, skin, nails, hair, internal organs, bones, tendons.

The main function of protein is to provide muscle tissue with building blocks for growth and recovery after training. Protein replenishes amino acids in the body, restores muscles after training, resists catabolism (destruction of muscle tissue), activates metabolism, increases endurance.

Protein is taken for building muscle mass, losing weight and when working on relief. Effects of protein, significant for weight loss: suppression of hunger, preservation of muscle tissue, increase in thermogenesis.

Proteins from various manufacturers


Slow (casein) — is made from milk. It has a very high (20% more than other proteins) content of glutamine, an amino acid that prevents catabolism and strengthens the immune system. This protein is relatively inexpensive.

Casein — long-term source of protein: its absorption time is 2-6 hours after ingestion. Slow protein is consumed at night to protect muscles from decay, as well as to eliminate hunger.

Fast (whey) — Made from whey. The amino acid composition of such a protein is as close as possible to the composition of amino acids in the muscles. In addition, the content of BCAAs (leucine, isoleucine, valine) in whey protein is higher than in other animal and vegetable proteins. Whey protein is the most preferred in terms of price / quality ratio.

The absorption time of whey protein is 30-40 minutes after ingestion. This protein is taken in the morning, before and after training. Fast protein is good to consume between meals.

Whey protein is found in three kinds.

Isolate (WPI) — pure protein (over 90%), which is absorbed very quickly. The isolate is less allergenic than the concentrate. For this reason, this protein is perfect for lactose-intolerant athletes. It is also used during «drying».

Concentrate (WPC) — undergoes less deep cleaning (40-90%), due to which it is cheaper and well absorbed. At the moment, there is no clear evidence that the concentrate is less effective than the isolate. Therefore, the concentrate is chosen when there is not enough money to buy the isolate. Minus — not suitable for people with lactose intolerance.

Hydrolyzate (WPH) is a product of hydrolytic cleavage of the isolate. It is distinguished by maximum purity (85-95%) and absorption rate, provides faster recovery after training, promotes greater insulin production, and is better tolerated. The disadvantage is an unreasonably high price. This protein is good for competitive athletes.

Important: studies have shown that the hydrolyzate is more effective than the isolate and concentrate by about 15%, while its cost is 2-3 times higher, which raises doubts about the appropriateness of its purchase.

Some experts advise using the concentrate in order to be more effective. combined with BCAA than taking an isolate purchased for the same price (unless the athlete is lactose intolerant).

You can call it fast meat protein, which, in terms of absorption rate and composition of amino acids, resembles whey. The disadvantage is a very high price in the absence of proven advantages over the whey analogue. Therefore, such a protein is rarely used.

Complex — consists of 2-3 slow and fast proteins, for example, whey, casein and egg. There are other combinations: concentrate and casein, isolate and concentrate, whey and soy protein. Due to the multicomponent composition, the complex protein can be taken at any time — in the morning, after training, at night.

A complex preparation can be taken to replenish protein during long breaks between meals, for example, during work. The disadvantage is low efficiency compared to whey protein. A direct relationship between muscle growth and the rate of protein absorption is considered to be established. Other types of protein included in the complex preparation reduce this rate.

With an average absorption time — soy, egg, milk. Often such proteins are part of complex products, but they are also found in their pure form. These proteins are consumed between meals.

  • soy — lowers cholesterol levels, is well suited for women, but is ineffective due to the low absorption rate, incomplete amino acid composition and some other shortcomings.
  • Egg — has the highest amino acid composition (almost ideal protein) and the absence of fat. Egg white is widely used for weight loss. The best time to take it is after a workout. The disadvantage is the high price.
  • Lactic — cheap, but contains lactate, which can adversely affect bowel function.

Release form

Powder – relatively inexpensive, provides flexibility in dosages. The disadvantage is that before taking the powder must be mixed with liquid in the right proportions to get a protein shake.

Important: Ready-made protein shake can be stored up to 3-4 hours at room temperature and up to 5-6 hours in the refrigerator.

Tablets — more convenient to use, transport, store. In addition, protein in tablets retains its beneficial qualities longer than powder. Minus — a higher price compared to the powder.

Capsules — have all the benefits of tablets, but they are easier to swallow. In addition, the capsules can be opened and the powder can be added to food. Capsules will cost more than powder and tablets.

Liquid — is quickly absorbed and convenient to take, but it is expensive and difficult to store and transport. Protein in liquid form has a shorter shelf life.

Bar – easy to take, easy to carry, compact, has a long shelf life. Disadvantages: high price, carbohydrate and fat content. The bar will be the best solution in situations where it is not possible to prepare a cocktail (travel, hiking).

Important: Not all protein bars contain protein, since this name is often used in relation to all similar products in sports nutrition.

Types of bars:

  • protein — a source of protein for muscle tissue;
  • carbohydrate – source of energy;
  • vitamin — a source of vitamins;
  • protein-carbohydrate (combined) — supply muscles with protein and provide energy. In addition, these bars contain useful vitamins.

Protein bars are consumed after training, carbohydrate — before training. Combination bars are eaten in the morning or in the morning.

Optimal dosage and intake

It is believed that for an ordinary person it is enough 0.8 years protein per kg weight per day. With intensive training for the development of muscle mass and strength, this parameter increases to 2 years (according to some reports 3-4 g). The optimal single dose is 30-35 years (absorbability limit — 40 years).

The amount of protein also depends on the individual characteristics of the athlete (the presence of subcutaneous fat, a tendency to be overweight), the goals of training, the type of load and some other factors.

On average for gaining muscle mass men need 200-300 yearswomen — 150-200 years per day. Some experts argue that thin men need 300-350 g, obese and overweight — up to 200 g, while the norm for thin women is 250-300 g, for full and obese — up to 250 g.

daily rate for weight loss: 130-160 (men), 100-140 years (women). To work out the relief: 200-260 g (men of average build), up to 200 g (overweight men), 180-220 g (women of average build), up to 180 g (overweight women).

Also, to calculate the optimal dosage of protein, you can use a special calculator in the Internet. Remember that the dose of protein is determined for each person individually. Therefore, it is better to seek advice from an experienced coach.

Protein nutritional supplements cannot replace natural nutrition. The ideal option for an athlete is to get 50% protein from food and 50% from protein supplements.

To prepare a cocktail, the protein is mixed with water, fruit juice or skim milk. Do not mix the product with hot liquids, as otherwise the protein will coagulate and partially lose its beneficial properties.

The daily dose of protein is conveniently divided into several partsto make it easier for the body to digest protein.

Quick protein is taken in the morning, between meals, 2 hours before training, immediately after training. It is not advisable to consume protein immediately before training, since physical activity temporarily inhibits muscle growth. During the day and at bedtime, take a slow or complex protein (when eating is postponed for 6-8 hours).

Protein can be taken in combination with creatine or amino acids. Reception schemes are better to find out from an experienced trainer.


When choosing a protein, you should pay attention to amount servings and dose size (serving composition), which indicates the amount of protein (g) in one serving. Landmark — the daily dose of the athlete, which is determined in each individual case.

There are 50%, 60%, 70%, 80%, 90% proteins. This means that 100 g of the product contains 50, 60, 70, 80, 90 g of protein, respectively. 90% isolate provides 25.5 g of protein per 30 g serving. The more protein in a serving, the better.

When using supplements with a low concentration, it is necessary to increase the dose in order to get the required amount of protein. So, for an athlete weighing 70 kg, 78 g of 90% and 140 g of 50% protein will be required.


Packaging affects the final price of the supplement, the convenience of taking it on the road and transporting it. Economical packaging (jar and package), as a rule, has a large volume and weight. For comfortable use on the road, a compact, and therefore small-capacity package (bar) is required. True, you will have to pay for a comfortable reception of the product (in terms of one serving).


Proteins have a different natural taste. Isolates and concentrates are characterized by a mild milky taste, while hydrolysates have a bitter taste. Also on sale there are products with the taste of chocolate, vanilla, ice cream, banana, strawberry, caramel toffee, cherry in chocolate. These aromatic additives will make the intake of the product more pleasant.

Side effects

Experts say that the protein is safe for the body, since it is made from natural products, and the resulting pure protein (without fats and carbohydrates) is of natural origin. At the same time, side effects are possible with individual intolerance, renal or enzymatic insufficiency, in case of an overdose, as well as with the use of low-quality products.

Protein Contraindications:

  • individual intolerance (occurs in the form of an allergy or indigestion);
  • kidney failure and other kidney diseases;
  • predisposition to kidney disease
  • food poisoning.

Important: Allergy usually manifests itself to a specific type of protein, which allows you to choose the best solution. For example, instead of whey protein, athletes with lactose intolerance use an egg or soy analogue.

With a lack of enzymes that break down protein (enzymatic deficiency), athletes additionally take the appropriate enzymes or reduce the dose of protein.

Possible side effects in overdose:

  • stomach ache;
  • violation of the kidneys;
  • indigestion;
  • flatulence (gas formation);
  • skin rashes;
  • weight gain — manifested in the formation of body fat.

Important: In order to avoid these side effects, protein dosage should be strictly controlled.

Body weight also increases with increasing calories nutrition (food and protein are converted into energy, which is then converted into fat). Therefore, it is necessary to rationally build a nutrition program.

A common misconception about the negative effects of protein on male potency not scientifically confirmed. There is information about the estrogenic activity of soy protein, which changes the balance of testosterone / estrogen in favor of the latter, which leads to a decrease in libido and fat deposition. Therefore, men should not take this protein in large quantities.

Before taking protein, consult with doctor or sports coach. Be sure to pay attention to the condition of the kidneys and liver, since with latent or sluggish inflammation of these organs, the risk of disruption of their work increases (especially with an overdose). This is due to the fact that excess protein additionally burdens the kidneys and liver.

If you have kidney disease, stop taking protein supplements containing creatine.

While taking protein, monitor the body’s reaction: if side effects occur, consult a doctor immediately.

Selection Tips

  • Buy protein of famous brands and only in specialized stores. A fake will not give the desired effect and will harm your health. For this reason, refuse to purchase bulk protein, which often causes indigestion.
  • High-quality protein (in the form of a cocktail) decomposes under the influence of direct sunlight, emitting an unpleasant odor.
  • Pay attention to the composition of the product: protein content, the presence of other components. The presence of soy proteins and genetically modified products is undesirable. Therefore, it is better not to purchase a protein labeled «modified».
  • Beginners are advised to choose a simple protein with a complex of essential amino acids (including BCAA, methionine, lezine, trionine). For professionals, a more expensive drug with a complex matrix, creatine, vitamins is suitable.
  • Check the integrity of the packaging and check the expiration date of the product.
  • Read the instructions carefully before use.


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